Noumenon

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We men know very little a priori, and have our senses to thank for nearly all our knowledge. Through experience we know only appearances …, but not the modum noumenon …, not things as they are in themselves…. God knows all things as they are in themselves a priori and immediately through an intuitive understanding…. If we were to flatter ourselves so much as to claim that we know the modum noumenon, then we would have to be in community with God so as to participate immediately in the divine ideas… Spinoza affirms two predicates: extension and thought. Every soul, he says, is only a modification of God’s thought, and every body is a modification of his extension. Thus Spinoza assumed that everything existing could be found in God. But by making this assumption he fell into crude contradictions. For if only a single substance exists, then either I must be this substance, and consequently I must be God (but this contradicts my dependency); or else I am an accident (but this contradicts the concept of my ego, in which I think myself as an ultimate subject which is not the predicate of any other being). ~ Immanuel Kant

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